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May 4, 2018
The Art of Manliness: Everything You Need to Know About Diet, Nutrition, and Fat Loss
Listen Here Intro Nutrition Protein To build muscle, we have to break our muscles down, in order to build them up bigger/stronger This involves adding additional muscle protein, which muscles are comprised of Protein is also a large component of hair, finger nails, and skin “Proteins build things” Carbs Carbs are an energy source. After we eat them, they’re converted to glucose. Typically, we store the carbs we eat as glycogen (aka stored glucose) in our muscles and liver Someone who’s 70 kg can store 425 g of glucose as muscle glycogen, and 75 g of glucose as liver glycogen The more intense an activity, the more stored glycogen we utilize When lifting weights, we have 3 energy systems ATP Phosphocreatine – system responsible for fast/rapid explosive activities (like the first rep of an exercise) Muscle glycogen – provides energy for the middle range repitions With over 20 reps, or with aerobic exercise, we rely on oxidative metabolism Glycemic Index (GI) – a classification system for how the body responds to carbs in terms of changing blood glucose levels (a high GI carb will raise blood glucose levels more than a low GI carb) However, the GI of a certain carb will be altered when eaten with fiber from protein/fat/other carbs The best time to take in fast acting (high GI carbs – like candy or Gatorade) is right after, or during, a workout to quickly replenish your glycogen stores Fat Fat comprises cell membranes Certain vitamins require fat for absorption – Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Vitamin K, and Vitamin E Fat can be stored as energy (stored body fat) By eating a high fat diet/low carb (like a ketogenic diet) our body becomes more efficient at burning dietary fat (not stored fat) for fuel In the reverse – if we eat a high carb/low fat diet, our body becomes better at burning carbs rather than the fat – so the fat we eat gets stored more readily Why do people who go on high fat diets (like keto) tend to lose more body fat than people who eat a normal carbohydrate based diet? It depends on our resting metabolic rate Resting metabolic rate is largely genetic The loss of stored body fat is driven by a negative energy balance (the calories you burn/expend > the calories you take in) At a caloric deficit, we then dip into burning our stored body fat On a ketogenic/ paleo diet – we tend to consume less calories, causing us to dip into/burn our stored body fat more often The total number of fat cells a human has is largely genetic It can be influenced by evironent Up until around age 20, we are adding new fat cells After this, any increase in body size is due to an increase in fat cell size, not number It’s thought that once a fat cell hits a certain size, it can’t get any smaller On a mixed fat/carb/protein diet, our brain uses carbohydrates to create energy When we restrict carbs and protein to very low levels, and eat lots of fat – we use dietary fat (and body fat when we’re lacking in dietary fat) to create ketones (the liver does this), which enter the krebs cycle to create ATP (energy) Compared to using carbs for energy, the result is the same (ATP), it’s just something different that’s used to create it Check out Dr. Peter Attia’s series on the ketogenic diet where he really break this down – HIGHLY recommend Technically we can create more energy per oxygen molecule (also used in conjunction with ketones/carbs to create ATP) when using ketones to create energy as opposed to carbohydrates In that sense, it’s slightly more efficient than using carbs to create energy Are carbs evil? Not all carbs are the same A lot of the fiber our body needs, comes from certain types of carbohydrates (vegetables, legumes, fruits, whole grains) Fiber can lower cholesterol levels and serves as food for our good gut bacteria The bad carbs (donuts, wheat, sugar) are inflammatory What happens when an endurance/weight lifiting athlete goes low carb? Once our muscle glycogen stores are depleted, we are forced to burn fat for fuel Unless we are keto adapted (this just means that our body is used to burning fat for fuel), this is challenging for the body However, if we are, our body/muscles can then use the fat/ketones for fuel De novo lipogenesis When we store the carbs we eat as fat This only happens when we eat at a caloric surplus First we store the fat we eat, then the excess carbohydrates The easiest way to gain fat, if you wanted to, is to eat a high fat+carb diet Check out Dr. Peter Attia’s blog post about fat cells for more on this – HIGHLY recommend Gluconeogenesis When the body converts non carb macronutrients (like protein) into glucose This is why you can’t eat a lot of protein on the ketogenic diet The Thermic Effects of Macronutrients Each macronutrient has a different thermic effect The digestion and absorption of fat, carbs, and protein is different Protein has the highest thermic effect If you eat a diet higher in protein, theoretically you’ll burn more calories, to digest that protein, compared to a diet low in protein It takes more energy to break down and digest protein Carbs are next, and fat last – fat is stored very easily Carbs have half the calories of fat Compared to a certain amount of fat, you have to eat twice the amount of carbs (by weight) to get the same amount of calories Burning Fat and Weight Loss Exercise Typically, moderate exercise doesn’t burn THAT many calories – a typical cardio session might burn around 400 This is only about 15% of daily energy expenditure 10-15% of our daily energy expenditure goes towards digesting food – this is called diet induced thermogenesis 87% of a fat cell is triglycerides, the other 13% are cellular machinery which we can’t “burn off” Robert estimates that 80% of weight loss is diet, the other 20% is fitness What would Robert advise the average male to do, if he wants to lose weight and is starting from square one? Nutrition – eat about 100g of fat a day (no more), around 200g of carbs, and 250 grams of protein A diet high in protein will keep you full You should shoot for 1-2 lbs. of weight loss a week Reduce calorie intake as you lose more weight and hit plateaus The leaner you get, the harder your body fights back to lose weight We have mechanisms in place, to protect us in times of famine Bodybuilder’s have around 5% body fat right before a competition How do you add body and muscle mass?
Ramp your carbs up (to around 400g a day), lower your fat slightly, and keep training hard It will be hard to avoid adding some body fat when trying to add muscle mass Do it in stages, once you hit a goal body weight, take a break and then focus on fat loss “Muscle takes a long time to gain” “If you’re not stimulating your muscles, no matter what diet you’re on, you won’t gain muscle mass” “The diet supplements the training. The training is the stimulus.” “The training stimulates the growth. Then you have to eat to facilitate that.” The more of a novice you are, the more lean mass you’re able to gain early on If you’re 2-3 years into training, when eating to gain mass – most of the mass you gain will be fat (some muscle, but 90% fat) At some point you will hit a plateau in your weight gain Try to eat around 40 grams of fiber per day Mission Tortillas have about 15 grams of fiber in one tortilla Raspberries are also good, and so are pinto beans For extra carbs, Brett adds oat and brown rice flour to his protein shakes