The Joe Rogan Experience: Rhonda Patrick (Part 1/2)

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Full Episode, Podcast Score: 9/10 Microphones

Sponsors: Squarespace (code: Joe), Legalzoom, MeundiesOnnit (code: Rogan)

Find Rhonda Patrick at: Foundmyfitness.com, @foundmyfitness

Part I

  • Sauna Benefits: Rhonda goes in depth on her blog on Sauna research
    • Dose dependent (1, 3-5, 4-7x per week) 40% decease in all cause mortality decrease over 20 years (source article)
      • Heat stress activates heat shock proteins (HSP) for a long time (up to weeks later)- able to prevent certain cell damage from accumulating
      • Studies have shown that HSPs can increase lifespan of worms/mice, people with more HSPs are more likely to live past 100 can prevent muscle atrophy and regrow muscles more quickly in mice
    • FOXO3 Activated by exercise and heat
      • Activated many genes to repair DNA, cells, stem cells, etc.
      • Worms live 50-100% longer when always have FOXO3 active
      • Humans with a polymorphism (gene mutation in >1% of population) for FOXO3 are 2.7x more likely to live to 100
        • No, these people shouldn’t think they are now immune from bad effects from smoking
  • Hyperbaric Chambers:
    • Rhonda is skeptical, but may benefit in some people in situations as more white blood cells are available to help repair injuries, but it still can cause damage too (can also help in those with issues with thei blood brain barrier and struggle to get oxygen into the brain)
    • Joe Namath is known to use hyperbaric chambers to help with negative cognitive effects of concussions/brain damage from years playing football
    • Oxygen is required for metabolism which is needed (along with food) to make energy and thus fix things (but can also cause cell damage)
    • Altitude Training: Current perspective is that it is ideal to live at high altitude (or sleep in tents that mimic it) and train at sea level for athletic results (however, these are not well controlled studies)
  • Cryotherapy
    • Cold shocking can help regrow lost synapses (study) = memories (knowledge of movement memories)
      • We see this in nature with hibernating animals such as bears who can regenerate Cold Shock proteins
      • Cold Shock Proteins: RBM3 goes up in brain/muscle to help regenerate synapse by making proteins
        • Only shown in mice to date, but have seen effect last up to 6 weeks after 2 exposures
        • Additional data indicates potential in delaying development of Alzheimer’s and extend lifespans
      • NO human data
      • Unclear what the minimum effect dose of this might be
      • Other literature is confusing as the details are variable (such as timing, what exercise is done, type of cold shock, duration of shock, etc.)
    • Application for Exercise: Probably only for elite athletes to push their body beyond its limits
      • Pro-inflammation cytokines result from exercise and then your body responds with anti-inflammatory cytokines to help stop inflammation and repair that are what you’re looking to create
      • This is generally a good thing
      • BUT some elite athletes risk over-training to the point where their bodies are overwhelmed with the pro-inflammatory cytokines leading to damage to bodies
        • Cryotherapy might help minimize the damage in these situations (before or after)
        • However, less necessary in regular people and might actually limit benefits for exercise
    • Norepinepherine in your brain and body are released with cryotherapy (no loss overtime)
      • In the brain: Connected with multiple positive mood/energy results and shown to decrease inflammation in the brain
        • NRRI prevent metabolism of norepinephrine allowing it to stay in synapses longer is used to treat depression
        • Cryotherapy has some evidence in helping depression, likely due to this pathway
      • In the body: causes vaso-constriction to conserve heat and has pain reduction effects (can be injected to reduce pain, with safety risks)
      • Likely a potential treatment post TBI/head trauma to slow inflammatory process and decrease damage to the brain
        • Hypothermia already used to treat TBI clinically
    • Cold to Lose Weight? Can also increase metabolism when cold to potentially lose weight (but likely better to spend more time in cold water immersion vs. short cryotherapy sessions) – See the chapter of The 4-hour body, but Tim Ferriss
      • Going from very cold to very hot (though common in Nordic countries) may tax the heart, so be careful!
    • Betacarotene causes cancer in SMOKERS (study)
  • Aging Study: Aging in young adults at ages 26, 32 and 38 (n<1000) measuring biomarkers of aging (DNA, telomeres, CRP, etc.) – Source?
    • Cells aged at very different rates (up to 10 year different) and appearance testing to correlate with your biologic age
    • Evidence that diet/lifestyle play a major role (in addition to genetics such as FOX3 – see above) in how you age
  • Major causes of death in US: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and Cancer
    • 80% of CVD is preventable by diet
    • Old bad science: Cholesterol is bad, eat low fat
      • IT is MUCH MUCH more complicated and these recommendations caused lots of problems (e.g. led people to eat Trans Fats which are dangerous and only recently banned by FDA)
      • It’s hard to re-teach older people on the better approach to help
  • CVD is connected to Gut Health
    • Small dense LDL particles are the problem, but we all need cholesterol
    • LDL is actually a transporter for cholesterol to cells (not cholesterol itself) which every cell need to build/repair cells
      • Bad if you have Chronic Inflammation of the gut (= not good gut biome) because:
        • HDL: brings cholesterol from cells away from liver when done to be recycled
          • The more small dense LDL, the more you need HDL
    • Gut Health and LDL:
      • You have over 100 trillion cells in your gut biome > the number of people that have ever lived
      • Gut also has highest concentration of immune cells as it’s exposed to environment from food
        • Kept out by gut barrier made of Mucin
        • When it breaks down when you are stressed endotoxins enter your blood and can bind with small dense LDL to keep it from damaging you organs/cells (when inflamed you make more LDL)
        • BUT now the LDL cannot get back to the liver to be recycled and is stuck circulating
          • So immune system attacks them, but can’t kill them as they are not bacteria/viruses, but release more pro-inflammatory cytokines that make it small and dense which then lead to plaques and are part of CVD
      • Mucin in gut cells to as the gut cells to keep immune cells from bacteria
        • Mucin needs energy from short chain fatty acids from fermentable fiber (fruits, sauerkraut, mushrooms, barely, vegetables, oats) made from “good gut bacteria” (e.g. lactobacillus that is in Kombucha)
        • 60-90% to fuel mucin creation and help it not breakdown
        • Refined carbs/sugars that prefer sugar and crowd out the good bacteria that prefer fermentable fibers
        • Insulin resistance is created in the gut as they can’t bring in the cells, you think you’re starving and mucin breaks down

        Getting your LDL Tested:

        • Don’t do when sick/stressed as it varies and goes up with stressed!
        • Get multiple levels to see what you true baseline really is
  • Probiotic Recommendation: VSL#3 sachets
    • 450 billion bacteria of 6 strains
    • 25 publications on VSL#3 on various bower problems and insulin sensitivity
    • Get your poop sequenced! – Ubiome (the 23andme for your gut health)
    • Rhonda experiments on herself and husband with positive results in her gut health after 1 month (more good bacteria and greater biodiversity)
      • This creates more lactic acid in your stomach which kills the bad bacteria
    • MRSA: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
    • Bacterial infection resistant to most antibiotics (commonly found on hospitals)
    • Alternative treatments after multiple rounds of antibiotics which can severely upset your gut microbiome (as they kill all bacteria, not just the infection)
      • Garlic, ginko boloba, grapefruit seed extract, tea-tree oil concoction used topical and oral garlic/grapfruit see extract
    • Antibiotics: “Wrecks your system”can lead to inflamatory bowel disease
      • Taking SSRIs and pain drugs are trying to treat symptoms and not looking to understand the underlying issue such as your diet/fiber intake/gut biome
      • Rhonda now eats 45grams of fiber a day
    • It’s important to be skeptical and not blindly follow your doctors advice as they don’t likely have time to learn about nutrition
      • Nutrition is not taught in medical school and doctors are not well informed, or at best it is optional
  • Vaccines saves millions of lives
  • Thinking that being thin makes your healthy shows you don’t understand nutrition and diet (average Dr. doesn’t know this)
    • Dr’s (and people in general) don’t like to admit that they don’t know/understand something
  • Exercise: Key component of health and disease prevention (such as cancer)
    • Colin cancer patients who exercise vigorously get better outcomes
  • Younger MDs are looking to learn more and a new generation may improve understanding of health, nutrition, disease prevention, etc.
  • Lactic Acid is GOOD for you in brain and muscle
    • Can cause some soreness, but it also used to repair the muscle damage
  • Lactate: Gut likes it as it is an easy type of energy that can be used by the body as is (vs. glucose that needs to be converted before you can make energy)
    • Exercise created lactate which goes into the brain – preferred source of energy for the brain
    • George Brooks: Discovered the “Lactate Transporter/Shuttle” Hypothesis – Lactate currently being used to treat Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)
      • Astrocytes are damaged with a TBI and stop making lactate and neurons need to use glucose instead of lactate which is easy/takes less work
      • Then Glucose can then be used for precursors for Glutathione (strongest antioxidant in the brain)
    • Theory: Parkinson’s patients who exercise very hard they can have an improvement in symptoms (some data in flies)
  • Rhonda doesn’t off-hand see the rationale for why compression pants would help recovery (not her area of expertise)

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